1. There are many breeds of cattle and sheep. According to the economical use, cattle can be divided into four types: service, meat, milk, and dual use; sheep can be divided into five types: milk, fur, meat, velvet and dual-use. Service type cattle: mainly cultivating land (land), the main representative species are buffalo buffalo, Xiangxi cattle, southern Hunan cattle. Meat-type cattle: mainly meat production, the main representative varieties of Luxi cattle, short-horned cattle, Charolais. Dairy cows: mainly milk production, the main representative varieties of Chinese black and white cows, Dutch black and white cows. Dual-use cows: The advantages of both the active, milk, and meat types, or the three, mainly representing Qinchuan cattle, Simmental cattle, and Mora buffalo. Milk goats: breeds with milk as the main direction, mainly represented by Saengen goats and Tugubao goats. Annual milk production is generally 400-2000 kg. Goats for fur: Breeds with the main direction of fur production are mainly represented by the Zhongwei mink goats and Jining green goats. Meat goats: breeds with the main direction of meat production. The main varieties are the horse head goats and the ancient sheep horses. Cashmere goats: A variety of goat cashmere as the main direction, the main representative species of Ningxia white cashmere goats, Tibet Kashmir goats. As a combination of goats, it also has milk production, board skin and meat performance, but there is no obvious production direction. The main representative varieties are Liuyang Black Goat, Leizhou Goat, and Chengdu Ram. Second, the digestion of cattle and sheep physiological characteristics of cattle and sheep are herbivores-based ruminants, with advanced digestive organs, digestive ability, can better digestion and utilization of a variety of green roughage. (a) omnivorous. Cattle and sheep have strong feeding abilities and all herbs are edible. Especially sheep, with a sharp mouth, can eat short grasses and shrubs that are difficult for cattle and other livestock to eat. (b) The cattle and sheep are gastro-intestinal animals and have a large stomach capacity. Cows and sheep are four stomachs. That is, rumen (commonly known as grass stomach) stomach, double valve stomach (commonly known as louver stomach), stomach (also known as abomasum). The first, second, and third stomachs have no digestive glands and do not secrete gastric juice. Only the stomach has stomach glands and can secrete gastric juice. The sheep's stomach volume accounts for about 67% and 70% of the total gastrointestinal capacity. Three stomachs are more structural than a single stomach animal, thus forming a speciality for the digestion and utilization of feed. According to this characteristic, in feeding, attention should be paid to satisfying its large number of feeding needs and given satiety. (c) Rumination. After the cattle and sheep feed, they are initially chewed and mixed with a large amount of alkaline saliva to form a bolus swallowing into the rumen. After some time, they pour in the mouth and chew again. Rumination usually 418 times a day and night. The time for rumination is about 4-8 hours. Therefore, in the production arrangement, care should be taken to ensure that it is suitable to ensure its normal rumination. (D) The special role of rumen and rumen microorganisms The rumen has the function of storing, stirring, rubbing the mechanical digestion of the food and pushing the food back to the stomach. A large number of microbes, bacteria and ciliates, are symbiotic in the rumen. They break down crude fibers, use non-protein nitrogenous substances to synthesize bacterial proteins, digest starch to convert them into animal glycogens, and synthesize B group vitamins and vitamin K. And so on. Therefore, cattle and sheep need not consider supplementing such vitamins under normal feeding conditions. (E) other role of the stomach chamber similar to the rumen stomach, stir food, part of the re-entering the rumen, another into the re-stomach, re-stomach stomach will further squeeze the food, grind it to the stomach, the role of the stomach Like the stomach of a monogastric animal, it directly digests and absorbs nutrients. (6) The small intestine is particularly long. The small intestine accounts for about 78% of the length of the total intestine. It has a strong digestive capacity and is the main organ for nutrient absorption. The small intestine is long and particularly curved, which is more conducive to the full absorption of nutrients. Third, feed production and production of feed Forage grass is the material basis for the production of cattle raising sheep, high quality and adequate feed forage is a fundamental guarantee for raising cattle and sheep. Therefore, in order to develop cattle and sheep production, it is necessary to broaden the sources of feed, to grasp feed production, and to achieve a balanced supply throughout the year. Several kinds of more practical forage utilization technologies are now introduced for reference. (I) After straw aminated rice straw is treated with ammoniating technology, the crude protein content can be increased from 5% to about 12%; at the same time, the soft texture, palatability, and digestibility of the rice straw can increase the intake of cattle and sheep by 20%. It is equivalent to the nutritional value of medium green hay; long-term feeding is non-toxic and harmless, safe and reliable, and can save fine material. Production Technology: 1. Equipment: such as cement tanks, cellars, water tanks, plastic bags, films can be. 2. Straw preparation: Select the fresh and clean dry straw that year, and use a sickle or rake to make a 1-5 inch long (feed the sheep into a 1 inch long, feed the burdock into a 5 inch long). 3. Urea treatment: According to the ratio of 100 kg of straw, plus 4 to 5 kg of urea, 0.4 to 0.5 kg of salt, and 40 to 60 kg of fresh water (the amount of water is flexibly controlled according to the season and the dry moisture of the straw). Put urea and salt in clean water and stir it with wooden stick until it is fully dissolved. Then, in the container, put a layer of (5-6 inch thick) straw on each layer of urea solution evenly, and squeeze it once until it is finally closed. You can. Afterwards, we must always check whether the plastic sheet is damaged or not, and find that the damaged part should be promptly repaired to ensure the effectiveness of the ammoniated treatment. 4. Ammoxidation time: The length of ammoniation is related to the temperature. It takes more than 40 days for 15^C and more than 25 days for 20 Â°C, 30. C must be more than 15 days. 5. Kaifeng opening: mature ammoniated straw is brown or dark yellow, brown, paste smell, soft texture. Feeding should be taken out in advance and allowed to disperse ammonia. After each use, keep it closed. For the first time, cattle and sheep are fed ammoniated straw, especially sheep, with appropriate additions of salt water, fine material, and green material, and forced to feed the mouths of 2-3 sheep. The sheep will feel delicious when they eat it. In the feeding of 2-3 sheep, other sheep will follow. It is generally successful at one time, and there are also gradual and hunger methods to make it eat. Each sheep can feed 0.3-1 kg per day. Each cow can feed 6-15 kg per day. (b) Straw micro-storage Straw micro-storage is the addition of microbiologically active strains to the straw - the "micro-reserve king" straw ferments live dried bacteria, and is placed in sealed containers (such as cement tanks, silos, cylinders) Storage, after a certain fermentation process, so that the straw has a sour taste, cattle and sheep eat feed. Each ton of straw made of micro-storage only needs 3 grams of straw to ferment live dried bacteria (worth 10 yuan), and the cost of the comparison with ammoniating is reduced by more than 4 times. The feed intake and weight gain effect is better than or equivalent to ammoniated straw. . Micro-storage technology: 1. "Micro Storage King" Straw Fermented live dried bacteria preservation. "Micro Storage King" Straw Fermented Live Dry Strains are sealed in aluminum foil bags and have a shelf life of one year. 2. Live bacillus revive and preparation of broth. (1) Resuscitation of live dried bacteria: Cut the aluminum bag and pour it into 200 ml of tap water to fully dissolve it. Under certain conditions, 2 grams or less of sugar can be added, dissolved in 200 ml of water, and then added to the live dried bacteria to dissolve. After standing for 1-2 hours at room temperature, it can be fully revived. (2) Preparation of the broth: Pour the rejuvenated broth into a well-dissolved 1% salt solution and mix well. 3. Straw micro-storage production: The straw is crushed into 3 to 5 inches (for cows) or 1 inch long (for sheep). Put it into the kiln (pool) or a layer in the tank, evenly spray the broth, compact it, reload it, spray the broth, compact it, and layer it until it is 40 cm above the kiln (pool) or cylinder port. Then compaction compaction, covered with plastic film, and then put about 30-40 cm thick straw, 5-6 inch complex soil sealed. 4. Opening of Kaifeng: After 30 days of fermentation of rice straw, it can be opened and taken out to feed cattle and sheep. With high-quality micro-storage, straw straw is golden yellow, with fruit, sprinkled with a slight acidity, and slightly soft texture. If you have strong sour, odor, and musty smell, you cannot feed your livestock. When the straw micro-feed starts to feed, there should be fewer to more, so that the cattle and sheep have an adaptation process and gradually increase the amount of feeding. Cattle can feed 10-15 kg per day and sheep can feed 0.3-1 kg per day. 5. Note: (1) The prepared broth should be used up to avoid overnight failure and waste. (2) Spray the broth to be uniform and uniform, store the material fully compacted, drain the air, seal it well, and avoid air leakage. (3) Water should be controlled at about 60-65%, not too dry or too wet. (4) When taking the stock, how much is used, and after taking it, the access port is sealed with a plastic film. (5) This product is non-toxic to humans and animals. (3) Feed Silage Silage, including potato vines, wild vegetables, and lettuce, etc., has retained its own nutrient of green feed on one hand, and on the other hand has greatly improved the palatability and digestibility, and at the same time, it has been preserved for a long time. , can be stored for several months or even more than six months, can play a crucial role in solving the lack of off-season green feed. (four) pasture planting Ryegrass: Ryegrass is a better type of grass, with strong adaptability, fast growth and high yield. Feeding cattle and sheep has high nutritional value and good palatability. (1) Sowing time: In two stages of autumn and spring sowing, autumn sowing is appropriate, autumn sowing can be in September-November. Early sowing can be fed in winter and spring. It can also be planted in mid-March, but autumn sowing is higher than spring sowing. (2) Planting methods: Seeds of ryegrass are small, fine soil preparation is required before sowing, so that the land is flat and the soil is finely crushed. In combination with ploughing, adequate organic fertilizer should be applied as base fertilizer. Drilling, spacing 15-30 cm, sowing depth of 1.5-2 cm, seeding volume of 1.5-2 kg per mu, but also sowing, the most suitable mixed with white clover, build high-yield artificial grassland. Seedlings should be ploughed and weeded in time, and water should be properly watered during drought. The growth period of ryegrass is about 110 days. (3) Usage: Ryegrass can be used for silage, drying hay, and suitable for grazing. The cutting period can be carried out before the heading or heading, and it can be cut 3-4 times per year and 3000-6000 kg per mu can be produced. 2. Sudangrass: Sudangrass is an annual herbaceous plant of the sorghum family, with a fertility period of approximately 120 days. High nutritional value and good palatability. (1) Sowing time: Usually sown in April-May. In order to ensure that there are green feeds throughout the summer and autumn, sowing methods should be adopted in stages to sow every 20-25 days. (2) Planting methods: The root system of Sudan grass is well developed. Therefore, before sowing, the land should be deeply ploughed and sufficient organic fertilizer should be applied. Rapid fertilizer application should be timely irrigated and chase after the tillering period, the jointing period, and after each cutting. The seedling stage should pay attention to the cultivator weeding. In order to increase the yield and the quality of green feed, it is best to mix with leguminous crops (such as alfalfa, etc.). Seeding methods are often used for seeding. The spacing is 40-50 cm, sowing depth is 4-6 cm, and the seeding rate is about 2 kg per mu. (3) Utilization pathway: The yield of stem and leaf of Sudan grass is high, relatively soft, suitable for green feeding, and also can be made into silage and dried hay. It can be castrated 2-3 times per year, and generally produces 3000-50000 kg of fresh grass per mu. 3. White clover: It is the most important and excellent bean seed grass for grassland improvement. With rich nutrition, high feed value and strong palatability, beef cattle do not need to feed concentrates in good white clover grazing. However, it is necessary to prevent the swelling of cattle and sheep caused by overeating. (1) sowing time: spring and autumn can be sown, spring broadcast 3-4 months, autumn broadcast September-October. (2) Planting methods: The white trifolium seeds are small, fine soil preparation is required before sowing, weeds are removed, and organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer are used as base fertilizer. Lime is suitable for use on acidic soils, and autumn sowing is appropriate. It is best to sow the seeds before the end of September, and it is best to mix them with ryegrass to increase the yield. Drilling spacing 30 cm, broadcast depth 1-1.5 cm is appropriate. Can also be broadcasted. When mixing the grasslands, the appropriate proportion of white ryegrass (1:2) should be maintained. Rhizobium seed dressing was applied before sowing. Per acre sowing amount of 0.5-1 kg. (3) Usage: The white clover is generally castrated at the early flowering stage, and it can be cut 3-4 times per year, yielding 2500-4000 kg per mu, and it can reach 5000 kg or more in high yield. Suitable for grazing, you can also dry hay. IV. Feeding and Management of Cattle and Sheep (1) Serving cattle (cattle) Cattle, winter plowing, spring plowing, spring plowing, and summer plowing (double snatching) are some of the critical periods for keeping cattle. As the cattle are affected by the cold in winter and suffer from spring flooding, the spring plowing is often untidy and the summer plowing is suffering from summer heat. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the feeding management during these periods. 1. Nutrient needs; cattle consume large amounts of energy during ploughing (land). In addition to paying great attention to the administration of the service, it is also necessary to strengthen feeding and give enough nutrients. The total nutritional needs of cattle, the daily weight of 100 kg of cattle, the burden of a mu of cultivated land, the need for ammoniation of rice straw 2 kg, 4 kg of hay. The amount of 0.3 to 0.5 kilograms of rice and 15 grams of salt is used to calculate the amount of feed. When the hay in the diet is not available, it can be replaced by castrated grass, red vine, etc. The rice can also be replaced by cotton cake, bran, corn, etc. In short, it is required to maintain a fairly standard nutrition. 2. Feeding methods: Feeding cattle must be based on its digestive physiology, combined with the current climate, feed, and cautious conditions. The cow's life must have certain rules in order to maintain normal physiological function and health. Timing, ration, less to add ground, pay attention to drinking water, which is a general rule on feeding methods. The number of feedings for the cattle during the service period should not be less than three times, and they should be fed three times in early, middle and late times. When ruminants are forced to retire, they usually stop ruminating, so they should be fed 2 to 2.5 hours before the service every day, so that the cattle have a ruminant time before they are employed to facilitate digestion. After the cowâ€™s cavalry had just finished, his wheezing was undecided. He should be allowed to rest after half an hour of rest. Each feed to the cow's feed must be quantified, allowing the cow to eat until 8-9 percent full, not hungry. Full meal. Overfullness can affect the exertion of cattle and even lead to digestive dysfunction. To make the cattle full, we must do less to add. If you give too much hay at one time (commonly known as lazy grass), it is easy to waste feed on the one hand, and on the other hand, the fodder cannot be eaten quickly. For a long time when the grass was sniffed, the cow did not like it. The cows have the habit of eating grass. They must divide the forage 2 or 3 times. Each time the cow is ready to feed, the cow can maintain a strong appetite until it is full. Drinking water should drink well and drink enough. The order of drinking water and feeding of cattle is not strict, usually small drinks before feeding, and then drinking after drinking. The sink in the bar cares for clean drinking water so that the cow can drink water whenever it is thirsty. For example, if the cows are fed with pots every morning, they will be fed with 2-4 eggs and 3 â€“ 5 white wines after the end of the evening. This will have a good effect on the cold and strong clams of cattle (in spring plowing). Double grab time (summer farming), you can use the appropriate amount of rice milk, soy milk or rice porridge to feed cows to increase the appetite of cattle. When allocating fodder, feed two or more feeds in the morning or in the afternoon, and feed less in the late feed. Longer nights can give more forage grass to feed freely. 3. Service period management: It is mainly cold in spring, heatstroke in summer and protection of cattle health. When plowing in spring, many cold days, the poor quality of cattle susceptible to cold, can be used Shichangpu, ginger chopped together into the wine jar sealed, before and after the work every day to feed the cattle 3 - 5 two, so that cattle It is not affected by wind and cold. When the weather is rainy, wear cows in time to avoid rain and cold. In summer cavalry, the cattle are not developed due to the sweat glands, and the heat resistance is worse than the cold resistance, especially the buffalo. Cows are forced to work in the hot sun or in hot weather. It is difficult to disperse body heat, and excessive heat storage can easily cause heat stroke. Therefore, the cooling of the heatstroke is the central link of the feeding management during summer farming. Therefore, it is not advisable to serve at noon, and it should be carried out sooner or later. During the service period, attention should be paid to the rest of the cow. Generally, the service is allowed to rest for about 15 to 20 minutes in about two hours. At rest, the ox yoke should be unloaded, and the cattle should go ashore freely so that â€œthe people on the field will rake the cows and the cattle will go ashoreâ€ so that the human and animals can recover from fatigue and continue to work. Each time the service is completed, the mud of the cattle body should be washed. The barn should be cleaned regularly, especially in the summer, the barn should be kept well ventilated, clean and dry, fresh air and suitable temperature. 4. Reasonably cautious: To be reasonably cautious, one must understand cattle's personality and physical strength, and determine the amount of daily ploughing based on these circumstances. When you use a cow, you must not rush to rush. When you start Shimoda, it will be slow. When farming is over, you will have to slow down. In the middle, you have to go evenly, that is, â€œthe two heads are slow, and the middle is stableâ€. You have to make no haste, no cold whip, no sharp turn. At the same time, attention should be paid to the observation of cattle, such as cows rushing, shortness of breath, walking swings, and frequent urination, which is a manifestation of cattle being overburdened and fatigued. The cattle should be allowed to rest and be relieved of fatigue after recovery. The daily service time is generally not more than 8 hours. For pregnant cows, care must be taken to protect them. Labor should be reduced two months before birth, and labor should be stopped one month before and after birth. This will prevent miscarriage and facilitate the recovery of postpartum constitution. When cultivating cattle, yoke and agricultural implements should pay attention to complete integration and moderate length, which can not only save the energy of the cattle, but also benefit the maximum working efficiency of cattle. Grazing must take different grazing methods depending on the season. The spring grazing should be conducted with good weather, and early return should be delayed at the time of grazing. Grazing in the summer, because of the hot summer days, to prevent heat stroke, at noon so that cattle rest in the shade. Early and late grazing can be adopted, and grazing cows can be fed at noon. Grazing during the day should also be grazing on shady slopes. Grazing in the fall, you can take "dew grass" approach to extend the grazing time. In winter, when the weather is cold, feeding should be the mainstay. However, in good weather, the cattle can be rushed to the sunny slopes to grazing, to exercise in the sun and to eat some grass and leaves. It is beneficial for cattle. The first is to provide enough forage, winter cattle can not be grazing and feeding, rely on people to feed the forage, therefore, before the winter should be according to the amount of food required to leave enough forage grass. The second is to pay attention to the trimming of the cowshed and do a good job of keeping the cold warm. The third is to carefully raise and manage. Before the winter, do a good job of autumn plover and health check. This stage of grazing is gradually transferred from the autumn grazing to house feeding. Should try to extend the time of grazing during the day, eat more green material, at the same time, the morning and evening should gradually feed feed. For calves and pregnant, burrowing cows, you can properly add some fine material. In this way, the cattle can be brought into the winter to lay a good foundation for winter feeding. At the same time, conducting a health check on cattle before winter or early winter is beneficial to the adoption of feeding measures. The fourth is to feed the strong and strong during the cold period, pay attention to keep warm and keep warm. Aminated rice straw, hay (or silage), and appropriate amount of concentrate can be used for compound feeding. At the same time, it should be noted that the sink should not be deprived of water for 24 hours a day. If not, it is easy to cause cows to "burn the bag," and the medical name is louver dried. Bullpen should be more bedding to keep warm, but also need to be diligent. The fifth is the preparation stage for spring cultivation, and the strengthening of feeding and exercise (sports). After the severe winter period, the temperature gradually increased. However, due to the impending spring cultivation, the feeding tube work should not be relaxed. It is imperative to pay close attention to reminding and careful nursing. When the weather is good, it is necessary to gradually extend the time outside the house to accommodate the spring cultivation. Prepare for labor. (b) The superiority or inferiority of bulls, bulls and bulls has a direct impact on the development of cattle production and the quality of offspring. For this reason, reasonable feeding management must be given. 1. Feeding methods: The general requirement for rearing a bull is to maintain its upper middle carcass and normal breeding functions. Therefore, we should pay close attention to its body condition, breeding quantity and labor conditions, and adjust the feed consumption of cattle at any time. In the season of off-season breeding and non-breeding, grazing and conserving should be done separately, and not mixed with cows. Mixed grazing and rearing can cause early mating and even close relatives breeding. This period is dominated by grazing and rearing, which can be supplemented with no supplements and supplements (according to circumstances). During the service period and breeding period, it is necessary to strengthen the feeding, and attention should be paid to increasing the protein feed and appropriate minerals and vitamins in the diet. This has great effect on maintaining the physical strength of the bull and improving the sexual desire and semen quality. Such as feeding some soy, eggs, bone meal and other feed. 2. Bull Management: First of all, it is necessary to grasp the proper age of the breeding bull. The cattle are generally required to reach the age of 2 and the buffalo reaches the age of 3 and begin to breed. At the same time, you should always give the cow a brush and try it 1-2 times a day to keep the body clean. Appropriate to strengthen the exercise, can be combined with grazing or sooner or later to take away the exercise 2-4 hours, so that a reasonable breeding, spring and autumn breeding season, the male cattle breeding times of not more than 3 times a day, male buffalo no more than 2 times is appropriate. (3) Breeding when the cows are empty should be based on grazing, and feed concentrates as appropriate; after 2 months of pregnancy and after birth, the fine material should be increased gradually; at the same time, bedding should be changed, and empty cows should pay attention to timely breeding. The general estrus cycle is 21 days, buffalo is 21-25 days, the estrus duration is about one day, and buffalo is 2-3 days. After the cow is pregnant, care should be taken to prevent miscarriage, and attention should be paid to the work of disinfecting and condom delivery during childbirth. The burrowing cows must be fed with milk as necessary, and they generally adopt a method of increasing from little to large. (4) The calf's newborn calf should let it feed breast milk, which is the key to raising a calf. If post-partum milk is fed by feeding, the milk is still insufficient to take the drug for milking. Milking can be used for 50 grams of Vaccaria, 30 grams of pangolin, Jianshui orally, the effect is better. Keeping a good calf should also pay attention to the following tasks. First, let it eat the colostrum in good time. (The milk in the 5-7 days postpartum is the colostrum, and the milk after 7 days is the regular milk). The second is to do a good job of tame as early as possible. By 3-4 days of age, it is a turning point in the development of the digestive organs of yaks. To seize this favorable period, it is possible to gradually increase the number of tame animals. 20-30 days can put some hay to feed, 1.5 to 2 months, the yak can get used to eating grass; at the same time, we should also pay attention to supplement some of the fine material. Third, the calf began to wean at 6-7 months of age. The weaning method is relatively simple. It is only necessary to isolate the mother and child for 1-1.5 months. The fourth is timely training, adjustment can make cattle to establish a certain conditional reflexes, easy to manage and causative, the cattle of poor temperament can also be a certain degree of correction. The calf should be put on the nose 3-6 months before the opening (commonly known as the upper cattle string). The cattle nose is made of metal, bamboo and wooden. Generally, bamboo and wood products are used to protect the nose. The calf should not be overworked. The time should not be too long. The fatigue should be allowed to rest, so that after a period of exercise, it can be transferred to normal service.
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