Chestnut high yield cultivation techniques

Chestnut is one of the woody food fruit trees, and it is also used as a fruit material. Chestnuts in China are particularly good because of the quality of nuts. Astringents are easily peeled off, especially in terms of resistance to stress and disease resistance. In addition to the drought-resistant and rot-resistant properties of Castanea, it also has a strong effect on chestnut blight and ink disease. The strong disease resistance has gained a reputation among the world's edible chestnuts and has been valued by the world.
First, chestnut requirements for environmental conditions chestnut in the hills, mountains, barren slopes, beaches can be planted. Adaptable to environmental conditions. However, we must pay attention to the environmental conditions required by the growth and development, so that cultivation can be cultivated in order to obtain high quality and efficiency. Chestnut has strong adaptability to temperature, and the average annual temperature is in the range of 3°C to 25°C. Chestnut flowering requires a high temperature of 17°C to 25°C, and the optimum temperature for pollen germination is about 24°C. Below 15°C, higher than 27°C affects pollination, fertilization, and fruiting, and an average temperature of 20°C or above is required during the fruit-enhancement period from August to September.
Li is a light tree species. The sunshine duration from April to October in each key chestnut producing area is about 250 hours. In general, the areas with low precipitation, adequate light, and dry climate have good quality and high commodity value. Different varieties have different requirements for precipitation. The chestnut area in the South is 1000-2000 mm.
Second, chestnut fruit forest construction method As fruit tree cultivation chestnut, in order to achieve high quality and high yield, from species selection, allocation of pollination tree to chestnut roads, water conservancy, housing and other infrastructure, as well as garden wind protection, soil and water conservation, etc., require reasonable planning. In the commercialized chestnut plantation, land planning should ensure the priority of production land, and make all services to be produced, and the other lands should maintain the coordination ratio. General chestnut planting covers an area of ​​90%, the road covers an area of ​​4% to 5%, and office management houses, reservoirs, and septic tanks occupy a total area of ​​4% to 5%.
In order to improve the survival rate of chestnut and promote the early production of chestnut, it is required to dig large pits and plant large holes. Digging large pits to increase the planting hole, deep turning ripening soil, can promote the vigorous growth of young roots, especially in the thin layer of the mountain, the effect is more obvious. It is generally required that the planting hole is 1 meter deep and about 1 meter wide. When trees are planted in mountain scale pits, they are dug into rectangular pits that are 1 meter deep and 1.3 meters wide and 1.6 meters long. They must be dug well in the year before planting, and the turf soil should be added. After the rainy season, soil ripening will benefit seedlings to survive. In mountainous areas and hilly areas, horizontal terraces should be reclaimed. Planting ditches with a width of 1 to 1.5 meters and a depth of 0.8 meters should be excavated, and 15 to 20 tons of farmland fertilizer should be applied per hectare. The existing "small old trees" in the orchards are mostly due to the small planting holes that hinder the growth of roots. Therefore, hillock slopes in mountainous areas should be blasted and expanded, so that the planting points can be widened and enlarged year by year, converted into terraces, combined with deep turning and ripening, and promote root growth to restore tree vigor and strengthen vegetative growth.
Third, seedlings planting Chestnut tree planting, first in the planting point (ditch) to apply enough base fertilizer rich in phosphate, every 666.7 square meters (1 acre) apply 3000 ~ 5000 kg of soil miscellaneous fertilizer and then fill in the topsoil. When the roots are stretched and backfilled with topsoil, the chestnut seedlings are lightly lifted and the root system is in close contact with the soil. Note that it is not appropriate to plant too deep. After pouring the water, the root neck is slightly higher than the ground or flush with the ground. Irrigate timely after planting and cover the tree tray with rice straw or film to reduce evaporation of water and improve the survival rate of the plant.
The hilly land was planted with dense plant spacing of 2 meters and 2 meters, and 166 plants were planted per acre. The yield of the second year was 196.8 kilograms per hectare, the first year was 987.5 kilograms, the fourth year was 2799.3 kilograms, the fifth year was 3603.8 kilograms, and the sixth year was 4441.9 years. Kilograms, with an average yield of 12029.3 kg per hectare for 6 years.
In practice, the chestnut orchard spacing of 2 to 2 meters and 3 meters is about to reach the canopy closure phase in the 7th year after planting. In order to give consideration to the output of Liyuan during the period before and after, in the design of the density, it is advisable to adopt planned close planting, set up temporary plants or temporary lines, and adopt appropriate measures for pruning crowns, cutting temporary plants when appropriate.
Fourth, pruning
1. Shaping
Naturally happy shape with 3 to 4 main branches, short and open canopy, with good ventilation and suitable for close planting. The reshaping method is to select the top of a full-fledged shoot at a height of 1 meter from the seedling, and to encourage the seedling stem to branch from below the cut-off, and leave 3 to 4 of them to choose from. The growth is robust, uniform in distribution and moderate in angle. Main branch. The main branch must be slanted outwards, with an opening angle of 50-60 degrees. Later, from the branches occurring on each main branch, 2 to 3 branches with a certain spacing distance and strong growth were selected, and 60 to 70 centimeters of each branch were left short and cultured as a secondary main branch. After 3 to 4 years, the tree shape can be basically formed.
The sparse layer has obvious central stems, with 5 to 7 main branches, large crowns and high yields. Sparse layer shaping method: 1 to 1.5 cm dry and dry. The dwarf dense planting chestnuts use a low-dry, low-crown crown, and a height of 50 to 80 cm. After drying, select 2 to 3 shoots with positive, good angle, and robust growth, and cultivate 2 to 3 main shoots as the first layer, so that the main shoots will be scattered and maintain the distance within the layer farther away. Each main branch is evenly distributed on the 3-4 main branches. The branches standing upright at the top are left as the center stem, and the other branches are strong and weak, and the weak branches are temporarily retained as supplementary feeding branches to promote the growth of the center stem and the main branch, and are beneficial to the early results. There are two main branches on the second floor. There is a proper distance between them and do not leave the corresponding branches. The third layer leaves 1 to 2 main branches. The distance between 1 and 2 floors is 1 to 1.5 meters, and the distance between 2 to 3 floors is about 1 meter. The three main branches should pay attention to insert and leave the election, avoid overlap, and avoid the cross between the main branch. During plastic surgery, it is necessary to constantly adjust the affiliation of branches at all levels to maintain the advantages of the center. In the principle of not affecting the growth of the backbone, auxiliary branches should be properly reserved.
Pruning during shaping Because the development of several buds at the top of the chestnut branch is relatively full and full, the internodes are short, and there is an apex growth advantage, trigeminal branches, quadruple branches or verticillate shoots are prone to occur. During plastic surgery, such branches should be dealt with as early as possible to prevent the emergence of competing branches. For overgrown branch shoots, it is necessary to timely pick up the heart in summer, or short cuts in full shoots in winter to weaken its growth potential and promote branching to accelerate the formation of the crown. For general branch shoots, short cuts can be made, and the crown shoots can be extended using the top bud branch.
The first three years after planting are mainly completed plastic surgery. Pruning should be light, while leaving the main branches and sub-main branches intact, other non-bone branches should be retained without affecting the growth of the main branches. To disturb the tree shape and influence the growth of the backbone, remove it by thinning.
Sapling pruning is combined with dormant trimming combined with growth trimming pruning. In summer, when the new shoot grows to 30 centimeters, it will leave 20 to 25 centimeters to pick up the heart. Whenever the new shoot reaches 30 centimeters in length, it repeatedly picks up the heart, triggers branches and makes the crowns compact. In the dormancy period in winter, proper shortening of the extension branch of main stem and the extension branch of each main branch was promoted, and branching was promoted, and the auxiliary main branch was selected to remain. For densely-enriched raw shoots, trigeminal branches, and quad-branched shoots, retain the medium-strong branches, leaving the rest sparse.
For saplings with continuous results of more than 2 years, the tree tends to become more relaxed and thicker. As a result, the proportion of branches begins to decline. At this time, pruning should be dominated by the growing season and turn to winter pruning. Pruning in winter should be timely retracted to update the long fruiting branches, removing weak branches, cross branches, diseased shoots and some strong top branches, improving the light and ventilation conditions of the internal condyle.
3. Trimming of the result tree
Results Remaining amount of mother shoots If 60 plants were planted per acre with a yield of 400 kg and the yield per plant was 6.7 kg, which was 1 kg for every 100 nuts, then 6.7100 = 670 chestnut fruits per chestnut tree were required. The result is that 112 strains of mother trees are required for each strain. In actual production, as a result, the retention of mother branches needs to be adjusted according to the local fruit rate. Make chestnuts have enough result units, and have good ventilation and light transmission conditions.
RESULTS The cultivation of the parent shoots and the robust growth of the annual branches on the outside of the trimmed canopy were mostly excellent results of the parent shoots and should be preserved. If they were too dense, the weaker shoots were sheared. As a result of over-growth, the mother branch should be left with 1 to 2 branches, and the resulting mother branch will not only increase the yield, but also disperse the nutrients to ease the growth potential. If the mother branch is debilitated due to successive years of results, it should be trimmed and trimmed, and in the lower part, a new result mother branch should be replaced. All thin and weak branches in the vicinity of the resulting mother branch should be removed as soon as possible so that nutrients can be supplied to the mother branch in a concentrated manner, making it weaker and stronger. Remove pests and branches and cross overlapping branches. For common weak branches or male florets, they may be shortened or retracted, which will cause the branches under the excision buds or under the nicks to be converted into new ones.
Results After many years of fruiting, the pruning branches of branches and branches showed a debilitating growth, resulting in a significant decrease in their abilities and they should be retracted to make them renew and rejuvenate. The use of Wangzhi, Zhuang shoot up law pruning, that is, at the base of the branch with strong Wang branch, can stay strong branches and retracting branches; no strong Wang branches, can find strong buds at the retraction, promote pumping Zhuang sticks; It is also possible to leave 3 to 7 cm short-pile retracted branches directly at the base of the shoots to germinate the lower crypts and then grow into new shoots. When the branches are too dense, they need to be thinned, weak and strong, and the conditions for ventilation and light transmission should be improved.
Fifth, chestnut soil management chestnut is a deep-rooted fruit tree, deep plowing the soil to change the soil, is conducive to root growth, can make the tree growth and strong, the result is good. The newly-built ploughing of chestnuts should be deepened and deepened year by year, and efforts should be made to complete the expansion of the park within three to five years after planting trees in order to promote root expansion. In autumn in Chongqing and Sichuan, it is advisable to use autumn as the peak of hair rooting. After the root cut, the wound will heal quickly and have more hair roots. The basic method for expanding a hole is to dig a width of about 30 to 50 centimeters around the canopy and a ditch (large hole) about 1 meter deep, and use organic fertilizer (20 to 50 kilograms per farmyard manure) or organic matter such as deciduous and green manure. ~100 kg, and with the appropriate amount of available fertilizer, superphosphate about 0.5 kg, mixed with the surface of mature soil buried in the hole.
When deep pounding, if there is a large broken root, the root-cutting wound should be cut flat to facilitate the healing of the wound. When the fertilizer is buried, the fertilizer is mixed well with the soil, the top soil is placed on the bottom, and the bottom soil is placed on the surface.
Sixth, high temperature and drought before flood irrigation covered on the eve of high temperature and drought, after the irrigation of the garden, the use of weeds green manure and crop planting legumes intercropping stalk tree cover, covering the thickness of more than 20 cm is better.
Seven, fertilization Chestnut growth and development, in addition to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, the three elements, but also with the appropriate amount of calcium, magnesium and manganese, zinc, boron and other trace elements. Chestnut is a high-manganese plant, and the manganese requirement is greater and more important than other fruit trees. Calcium is also one of the larger elements needed for chestnuts. Boron plays an important role in pollination and fertilization. Appropriate application of boron can prevent flowering and reduce the effective rate of chestnut emptying.
The application of basal basal fertilizer is mainly in autumn. Under the premise of not causing re-growth, basal anaerobic fertilizer should not be released soon. Base fertilizers are usually applied in combination with deep-turning soils. Because the ground temperature during fertilization is relatively high, root-absorbing roots tend to heal easily and the photosynthetic efficiency of the leaves is high. If a combination of quick-applied fertilizers is applied, the results are even greater. ideal. However, in the Chongqing area, the quick-acting fertilizers should be used with caution. If they are used improperly, they will have side effects.
Adult tree basal fat plants applied 100 kg of organic fertilizer, 0.2 kg of urea, 0.5 kg of phosphate fertilizer and 0.15 kg of borax.
Topdressing Topdressing Before flowering, it is applied between March and April. The main nitrogen fertilizers are quick-acting, with urea, ammonium nitrate or thiamine 0.5 kg or human waste 50 to 100 kg per plant. Spray 0.1% to 0.2% borax during flowering to increase fruiting rate. Between July and August, when the fruit is rapidly hypertrophied, topdressing should be applied to apply the complete fertilizer available soon, with 0.5 kg of urea per plant, 1.5–2.5 kg of superphosphate, and 0.5–1 kg of potassium fertilizer. In mid-August and early September, 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate may be sprayed once. After spraying, 0.3% to 0.5% urea was sprayed once at the end of September and in early January, and 0.25 kg/plant of Sanyuan compound fertilizer was applied.
The amount of fertilization in chestnuts should be based on tree vigor, yield, planting density, soil conditions, and variety. It is generally believed that the chestnut root is deep, the area for absorbing nutrients is large, and the absorption amount is also large. Its 20-year-old adult tree, according to the amount of results and absorption into the application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium ratio per mu, for 14? 8? 11. However, the amount of fertilization in the various high-yield gardens is not consistent due to differences in age, soil, and management.
Fertilization Method 1 Application of Irradiation Ditch: Take the trunk as the center and dig 4 to 6 radial grooves at equal distances along the edge of the canopy. Groove width of 30 to 40 cm, the length of the ditch in accordance with the size of the crown, generally one-half the length of the ditch in the crown, one-half outside the crown, fertilization ditch depth of 40 to 50 cm. Rotate the ditching position year by year. 2 Ring groove application: Excavate a 40 to 50 cm wide, 50 cm deep ring groove near the crown of the canopy and apply fertilizer. 3 striated gutters: Divide 50 cm in depth and 40 cm in width in the relative positions slightly outside the canopy, depending on the fertilization ditch whose length is determined by the size of the crown, apply fertilizer. The position of the groove in the next year is rotated to the other side.
In early spring, the roots were fertilized in the early spring, and the base leaves turned green (the leaf area was about 20c?). The leaves were sprayed with 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate + 0.2% urea to make the leaves thick and green. During fruit enlargement, spraying 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate can promote fruit growth. Spraying 1 time in the first half of harvested fruit, or spraying 0.1% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate twice a month before harvesting, can increase the weight of single grains by 15.7%.
VIII. Irrigation and Drainage Management Chestnuts are relatively drought-tolerant, but it is important to manage the water during the period from planting to survival. The rapid growth of new shoots and the rapid expansion of fruits require more water, which is the key to ensure the yield and quality. In case of drought, it must be timely irrigation. Precipitation and drought before spring flowering in early spring can promote the formation of female flowers, favor the growth of branches, and have a good effect on improving the current year's yield.
In the rainy season, pay attention to drainage, especially in the flat ground, deep chestnut soil, in the rainy season, to clear the drain, do not make the chestnut water.

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