Low Temperature Watermelon Nursery Seedling Common Problems and Countermeasures

Cultivating strong seedlings is the basis for high yield and quality of watermelon. "Half-strong seedlings are harvested." Only robust seedlings can achieve the goal of early maturing, high quality and high yield. However, due to the sensitivity of seedlings to external conditions, coupled with the impermanence of early spring gas, abnormal seedlings often occur, affecting normal growth.

1, the emergence of uneven seedlings mainly due to uneven ground temperature, humidity, bed uneven, uneven thickness of the cover or bed panel knots and other causes.

【Prevention and Control Measures】: 1 It is recommended to use the geothermal line or fire track to raise seedlings. When laying geothermal lines, the spacing between the greenhouse front lines should be 3~4cm, and the distance between the back of the greenhouse should be 7~8cm so as to make the bed temperature uniform. 2 After the sowing, the thickness of the cover soil should be uniform, and cover the film on the seedbed to keep the humidity of the seedbed uniform; 3 When the emergence is uneven or there is no sign of emergence, the seeds in the seedbed should be inspected, if the seed radicle tip yellow rot, indicating the seeds Can not normally germinate, should carefully find the reasons to improve the seedbed environmental conditions, and immediately replant; If the root tip is still white, indicating that it can normally germinate, should strengthen the management of temperature and humidity, promote seed germination; 4 when the size of seedlings The seedlings can be moved to a lower temperature on the front of the greenhouse to keep the seedlings growing in order.

2, "Dai Mao" watermelon seedlings unearthed, often occurs after seedlings unearthed seed coat does not fall off, cotyledons can not stretch the phenomenon, commonly known as "wearing hat." The main reason is the lack of bottom water at the time of sowing or the overburdening of the soil, the seeds have not emerged yet, and the topsoil has dried out, making the seed coat dry hard and hard to fall off.

[control measures]: 1 cover soil thickness to be appropriate, usually 1 ~ 1.5cm, after planting a seedling bed covered with a layer of plastic film, you can heat, but also to keep the soil moist, so that seed coat soft and easy to fall off. 2 When the earthwork is thin or there is cracking on the bed surface, appropriate water should be sprayed and a layer of moister sifted fine soil be spread to increase the moisture content of the soil surface and the friction of the soil to the seeds to help the cotyledons be shelled. 3 For a small amount of cap seedlings, artificial shelling can be performed in the morning when the seed shell is moist and soft.

3. The roots of the roots are: roots are rusted, and when the roots are severe, the roots are rotted and the roots are not long. The seedlings are easy to wither. It is a physiological disease, mainly due to the low bedrock temperature and excessive humidity.

【Prevention and control measures】: 1Improve the conditions for raising seedlings, maintain proper temperature, strengthen ventilation, control the amount of watering, adjust the humidity, and especially do not water the sky. 2 Once the roots occur, promptly ventilate and remove moisture, increase evaporation, diligently plough loose soil and increase the permeability. 3 If the soil is too wet, sprinkle some fine dry earth or coal ash to make the temperature of bed soil rise as soon as possible. 4 Use multi-layer covering to facilitate heat preservation and ground temperature rise. Temporary warming is performed at low temperature or in continuous shade, rain and snow days.

4, burning root burning roots yellow, not long new roots, but not rot, the ground part of the slow growth, short and hard, do not send trees, small and wrinkled leaves, easy to form a small old seedlings. Reasons: The organic fertilizer is not fully cooked, or is not fully sieved and mixed with the bed soil; excessive application of chemical fertilizer in the nutrient soil, soil solution concentration is too large; soil is dry, soil temperature is too high.

[Control measures]: 1 Organic fertilizer used in the preparation of nutritious soil must be decomposed; 2 as little or no chemical fertilizer as possible in the nutrient soil; 3 burning roots, should be appropriate to increase the amount of water depending on the situation of the seedlings, moisture and weather conditions And watering times to reduce the concentration of soil solution.

5. The leggy seedlings are also called tall seedlings, with fine stems, long internodes, thin leaves, thin and large leaves, light green leaves, soft tissues, undeveloped root systems, poor disease resistance, poor stress tolerance, low photosynthetic levels, and colonization. After the slow seedlings are slow, the survival rate is low, and at the same time the results are late, which also has a greater impact on the yield. Reasons: lack of light, night temperature is too high, too much nitrogen fertilizer and water; seeding density is too large, seedlings crowded each other to shade, poor ventilation; before and after the emergence of seedlings, poor temperature management, bed temperature is too high.

[Control measures]: Adjusting the temperature, humidity and light of the nursery bed will help foster strong seedlings. 1 In case of overcast yin, rain and snow days, it is also necessary to pay attention to removing the opaque covering to make the seedlings look light. 2 The temperature difference between day and night can be gradually increased with the growth of the seedlings, and the night temperature is appropriately lowered. The night temperature after emergence is not higher than 18 °C, but also to properly control the amount of watering and nitrogen fertilizer application, spraying 0.3% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate or Jian Bo 500 times; 3 timely seedling, seedling seedling density generally requires 10cm square, if If the seedlings are cultivated with nutrients, the seedlings can be thinned according to the growth status of the seedlings.

6, rigid seedlings showed small, dark color, thin stems, short sections, slow growth, small roots and so on. Mainly due to low temperature, drought or lack of fertilizer, its external characteristics are not the same. 1 Due to early planting or encountering continuous rainy days, the seedlings caused by the low temperature of the seedbed are small, the cotyledons are small, the edges are curled up, the hypocotyls are too short, the true leaves cannot be developed after the emergence of the leaves, the leaves are dark and the roots are underdeveloped. Dark brown; 2 Due to seedling drought caused by the freezing seedlings, cotyledons thin, rolling down the edges, leaves yellow, slow growth, root rust yellow; 3 due to nutrient soil due to lack of fat and stiff seedlings, cotyledon upturned, small leaves Yellow, rolled upwards, sometimes with dry edges.

Prevention and control measures: 1 Strengthen warming and heat preservation measures, reduce ventilation, and make the seedbed receive as much light as possible to increase the bed temperature. In regions where cold weather often occurs during nursery season, seedlings should be raised by warming seedlings; 2 strengthen fertilizer and water management at seedling stage and timely watering in appropriate amounts; 3 pay attention to the proportion of fertilizer in nutritious soil; due to lack of fertilizer, stiff seedlings can be used for health planting and phosphoric acid. Potassium dihydrogen etc.

7, "flash seedlings" and "slender seedlings" seedlings can not quickly adapt to the dramatic changes in temperature and humidity, resulting in violent water loss, and cause the leaf margin dry, leaf color becomes white, even the phenomenon of leaf cracking called "flash seedlings." The wilting caused by excessive warming and lack of timely ventilation is called "sluggish seedlings." Reasons: The former is suddenly ventilated, the air exchange inside and outside the seedbed is intense, causing a sudden drop in the humidity inside the bed. The latter is low temperature, high humidity, low light nutrition consumption, poor resistance, long cloudy rain suddenly clear, warming too quickly, ventilation is not timely and not adapt.

【Treatment measures】: 1 Ventilation should be open from the leeward side, ventilation from small to large, the time from short to long. 2 The rainy weather, especially the cloudy days, should be properly exposed to allow the seedlings to see the light. (3) Remediate foliar fertilization with Jian Bo and KH2PO4.

8. The most common "falling seedlings" of down-flowing watermelons are caused by damping-off.

[control methods]: 1 Select a high-lying, well-drained plot for the seedbed. Add "200g of Bacillus cereus" to each side of the soil to disinfect the soil. 2 to strengthen the management of seedbeds, do a good job of insulation work, appropriate ventilation, do not water in the rainy days, keep the seedbed dry and not wet. 3 Pharmacy control: The diseased seedlings were found and sprayed in a timely manner with 600 times liquid of "Lushangjing + Wanshuai No.1". If the humidity of the seedbed is relatively large, select the screening soil for the seedbed when there is no dew on the sunny day in the morning (using the seedling bacteria 20g mixed with 15kg of fine dry soil), the effect is good.

9, phytotoxic watermelon seedling sensitive to pesticides, drug resistance is poor, it is prone to phytotoxicity appeared spots, yellow, withered and even death. Cause: Misuse of pesticides; high concentration or correct concentration but repeated use; high temperatures, high humidity, and strong light during application; improper use of chemicals.

【Prevention and Control Countermeasures】: 1 Correctly select pesticides, use them randomly, and use with them, concentration and frequency are appropriate; 2 When using drugs, look at the days, see the land, see the seedlings, avoid adverse weather, bad public opinion, and not Strong seedlings, the application of high quality, spraying evenly and moderately; 3 after the emergence of phytotoxicity, in a timely manner with "Health and Planting Po + Wan Shuai No. 1" or "Huiguang alginic acid" spraying seedlings to ease the injury.

10, no growth point of melon seedlings is mainly caused by pests, fertilizer damage or injury. In the nursery field, Huang Shougua or Pieris rapae tends to eat off the heart, resulting in “headlessness”. At the same time, the growing point is younger, and the fertility and resistance are weak. If the foliar spray or topdressing concentration is high, the spraying amount is large. Easily destroy the growing point.

[Control measures]: It is recommended to spray Wan Xiai No. 1 500 times solution, or use a solution of gibberellin 30 ~ 50 mg/kg to alleviate the injury.

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